New IBM Report: A Manager’s Guide to Assessing the Impact of Government Social Media Interactions

IBM’s Center for the Business of Government has published a new report: “A Manager’s Guide to Assessing the Impact of Government Social Media Interactions“.IBM Center for the Business of Government: A Manager’s Guide to Assessing the Impact of Government Social Media Interactions

This new report addresses the key question of how government should measure the impact of its social media use.

Social media data – as part of the big data landscape – has important signaling function for government organizations. Public managers can quickly assess what citizens think about draft policies, understand the impact they will have on citizens or actively pull citizens ideas into the government innovation process. However, big data collection and analysis are for many government organizations still a barrier and it is important to understand how to make sense of the massive amount of data that is produced on social media every day.

This report guides public managers step-by-step through the process of slicing and dicing big data into small data sets that provide important mission-relevant insights to public managers.

First, I offer a survey of the social media measurement landscape showing what free tools are used and the type of insights they can quickly provide through constant monitoring and for reporting purposes. Then I review the White House’s digital services measurement framework which is part of the overall Digital Government Strategy. Next, I discuss the design steps for a social media strategy which will be basis for all social media efforts and should include the mission and goals which can then be operationalized and measured. Finally, I provide insights how the social media metrics can be aligned with the social media strategic goals and how these numbers and other qualitative insights can be reported to make a business case for the impact of social media interactions in government.

I interviewed social media managers in the federal government, observed their online discussions about social media metrics, and reviewed GSA’s best practices recommendations and practitioner videos to understand what the current measurement practices are. Based on these insights, I put together a comprehensive report that guides managers through the process of setting up a mission-driven social media strategy and policy as the basis for all future measurement activities, and provided insights on how they can build a business with insights derived from both quantitative and qualitative social media data.

 

Media coverage:

 

Turkey’s political decision to blackout Twitter

Will the revolution be tweeted in Turkey even though the prime minister has decided to block the microblogging service Twitter? It sure looks like it. However, it seems to have backfired big time as this Twitter map of the hashtag #TwitterIsBlockedInTurkey shows:

An upside of this political decision is, that it has in my opinion increased the digital literacy among the Turkish people. They had to learn about proxies, VPNs, anonymous surfing, and other work-arounds to gain access to Twitter, read about what the world outside thinks about the developments and keep posting to Twitter. In a world where physical access is no longer a hurdle, digital literacy – know _how_ to access content and understand cultural differences of social networking sites has become an important issue. As one of my friends reports from Turkey,  this article on Mashable.com has become an important source to teach people how to reconnect or stay connected.

Even though the Turkish president (who mostly has representative functions) had to sign the law prime minister Erdogan put forward, he himself kept tweeting and posted a memorable update condemning the blockade of social media platforms (translation: “Closing of social media platforms can not be approved of.”

In the past, EMPA students from the Turkish prime minister’s office, other cabinet offices, and the presidential office attended my social media classes at the Maxwell School. Looking back at our class conversations I am still surprised – and I know I shouldn’t – how little political power the president has and how much his office focuses on representative aspects. My students from both offices were eager to learn how to use social media in professional ways to support their bosses, but it was also clear to me that the political elite represented in the classroom was disconnected from the technological and cultural developments surrounding social media. A fact that I also observe when I talk to high-level public managers from other countries or the U.S.

While this certainly does not justify the Twitter blackout, I do believe it is an important factor to understand why government officials may feel threatened by a free and open online conversation they can’t control. The result is that they are oftentimes surprised by what is now called leaks of their own behavior and learn about it when issues are starting to be covered in the press – bridging the boundary between online conversations and mainstream media attention.

eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government Special Issue: Social Media in Asia

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The eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government has just published a special issue focusing on governance issues around social media, mobile applications and other new technologies in Asia.

Here is the blurb:

This special issue is aimed at showcasing innovative scholarly works examining various subjects concerning the role of social media, mobile phones, and other new technologies in the formation of democratic citizenship and good governance in Asia. We seek studies that address relevant topics in a particular Asian country, and also welcome comparative research on Asian countries or Asian and non-Asian countries.

The articles are available for open access on the journal’s website and listed below:

Table of Contents

Editorial

Transformation of Citizenship and Governance in Asia. The Challenges of Social and Mobile Media PDF
Nojin Kwak, Ines Mergel, Peter Parycek, Marco Skoric i-iii

Special Issue

Civic Action and Media Perceptions within the Wall: The (Re) Negotiation of Power in China PDF
Natalie Pang 1-15
A Trigger or a Muffler? – Examining the Dynamics of Crosscutting Exposure and Political Expression in Online Social Media PDF
Soo Young Bae 16-27
Protests against #delhigangrape on Twitter: Analyzing India’s Arab Spring PDF
Saifuddin Ahmed, Kokil Jaidka 28-58
Internet Aggregators Constructing the Political Right Wing in Japan PDF
Muneo Kaigo 59-79

Scientific Research Papers

The Impact of Public Transparency in Fighting Corruption PDF
James Batista Vieira 80-106

Social media innovations: Wake County provides sanitation scores to Yelp

Bill Greeves, CIO of Wake County, has joined my ‘Social Media in the Public Sector’ class this week (follow along on Twitter #maxmedia13). He talked about how the county seeks to innovate with social media and make government data available in places of high value for citizens.

One example he showed was the county’s new partnership with Yelp, an “online urban city guide that helps people find cool places to eat, shop, drink, relax and play, based on the informed opinions of a vibrant and active community of locals in the know.”

The county provides sanitation scores to Yelp that are calculated based on routine inspections by the county’s inspectors of restaurants. At the same time, citizens who are visiting restaurants are leaving their own reviews and in combination with the formal county scores future restaurant visitors might gain a more complete picture than using individual insights from citizens only.

This looks like a great use of already collected and published government data: The county makes an effort to move the data from a government website that citizens might not readily find to an online destination where citizens are already talking about restaurants scores and where government data can gain additional value.

However, on Yelp a restaurant owner mentioned that score might not be reported correctly. This gives business owners an opportunity  to review scores and directly interact with government:

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Calgary Police’s Twitter account displays #SMEM best practices during #yycflood

During the floods in Calgary, Canada, this weekend, the social media manager of Calgary’s police did a fantastic job answering questions, diffusing rumors, using social media to pull in additional information from citizens, point people to volunteer opportunities, and to activate officers to work extra shifts via Twitter. It was important to get information into the social awareness streams, where citizens were looking for information they were not able to get access to through regular government communication channels (like the emergency phone numbers). The Calgary Police added the Twitter hashtag #yycflood to every tweet they sent.

And then a remarkable thing happened, that I haven’t seen in any other context so far: After sending out hundreds of tweets, the police has reached the tweet limit per day and had to stop updating the public.  They had to work with Canada’s Twitter representatives to expand the rate limit:

The news spread rapidly and was labelled by some as a major fail in emergency management, which indicates the reliance on resilient communication infrastructures that people trust and turn to in crisis situations.

In a pretty genius stroke, the police redirected their official communication through the Twitter account of their own Digital Communications Officer, Jeremy Shaw, who took over tweeting from his personal Twitter account on behalf of the official police Twitter account:

After a few hours the account was restored:

Responding, directing, informing, calming down, diffusing rumors:

Recent social media experiences of first responders and utility companies have shown, that citizens need to know that they are heard, that their issues are taken care of and that help is on the way during a crisis. Cst. Jeremy Shaw tweeted with them through two long night shifts and did a fantastic job handling repeated requests for information in a very calm and polite way.

Here are some of the tasks the Calgary Police Twitter account was able to fulfill using Twitter as a parallel and resilient communication infrastructure, while the formal communication channels were used for live-threatening situations and to direct first responders to the scenes.

1. Dealing with volunteers

In a very polite way, volunteers were informed that the police did not want to put them in danger and prevented them from showing up on the scene:

2. People were pointed to alternative information sources, such as the city’s frequent blog updates:

Or the utility company’s updates:

And also that other reliable sources people had trusted were temporarily not available:

3. Assuring people that officials are listening, that they are being heard

It looks to me as if every single citizen tweet was responded to, either by directly answering a question about the flooding situation in a specific area or even just to thank people for their feedback. An important direct lifeline, when all other channels are overwhelmed.

4. Asking officers to work extra shifts:

Off-duty officers were asked to work additional shifts and were asked to check in:

5. Asking citizens to verify updates on the ground

I was also happy to see that the police was open for citizen first responder reports and updates, however I only saw one tweet of this sort. The potential is obviously enormous: Some of the reporting responsibility can be distributed across the shoulders of citizens who are observing impact first hand. It’s impossible for one social media manager to fullfill all these different roles. I believe what the Calgary Police did was smart: They focused on direct feedback and on providing the lifeline that obviously many citizens needed at this point. They also served as a connector among many different first responders and different information sources. Adding on the task of pulling in citizen reports to this role is almost impossible: The sheer volume of incoming information needs to be automatically processed and directed. For future purposes, they could use other types of reporting platforms such as SeeClickFix to monitor impact or automatically analyze impact similar to USGS’ Internet Intensity Map.

6. Diffusing rumors to avoid panics, lower anxiety

Here is an example of promptly responding to the rumor that a dam broke, but I also saw a few updates in response to concerned citizens who were worried about a rumor that the zoo had to kill its animals:

Or diffuse rumors about looting:

New Public Administration Review article: A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government

Together with my co-author Professor Stuart Bretschneider I wrote an article that was just published for early view in the Public Administration Review (PAR). In this article, we develop a model of social adoption in the public sector. Here is the abstract:

Social media applications are slowly diffusing across all levels of government. The organizational dynamics underlying adoption and use decisions follow a process similar to that for previous waves of new information and communication technologies. The authors suggest that the organizational diffusion of these types of new information and communication technologies, initially aimed at individual use and available through markets, including social media applications, follows a three-stage process. First, agencies experiment informally with social media outside of accepted technology use policies. Next, order evolves from the first chaotic stage as government organizations recognize the need to draft norms and regulations. Finally, organizational institutions evolve that clearly outline appropriate behavior, types of interactions, and new modes of communication that subsequently are formalized in social media strategies and policies. For each of the stages, the authors provide examples and a set of propositions to guide future research.

Full reference:

Mergel, I. and Bretschneider, S. I. (2013), A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government. Public Administration Review. doi: 10.1111/puar.12021

“Sede Vacante” replicates real-life events on the Pope’s Twitter account

Pontifex_SedeVacante by inesmergel
Pontifex_SedeVacante, a photo by inesmergel on Flickr.

On February 28, 2013, pope Benedict XVI, stepped down and vacated his chair – literally. The pope who had just recently started to tweet also vacated his Twitter account. This symbolic gesture had an impact on the Internet community. While people were still watching the pope emeritus arrive at his temporary home at Castel Gandolfo (the summer residence), Twitter moved all his existing tweets to an online archive on News.VA:

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While these events had a Dan Brown novel taste to it, what the communication and public relations folks missed behind this move is that the pope has actually build an online community on Twitter with over 1.6 million people who actively want to receive updates. They ignored the significance of a community that trusted the online relationship the pope created with them through a medium that they prefer over other media.