Category Archives: Adoption of new technology

CfP Special Issue Agile Government and Adaptive Governance in GIQ

Special Issue on Agile Government and Adaptive Governance in the Public Sector

Governments around the world have to respond faster to citizen needs, like the expectation of 24/7 availability and personalized access to government services generated by the so-called ‘Facebook generation’. Seamless user-centric experiences on social networking suites, such as Weibo or Twitter, as well as online marketplaces such as Amazon, increase the demand for similar experiences with government services. In addition, industry trends, such as Big Data, predictive analytics methods, and Smart City approaches drive the need to create internal capacity and skill sets to evaluate, respond to, and implement new technologies and internal processes.

The previous new public management era has left many government organizations with a reduced skill set and limited capacity to upgrade their IT infrastructure. As a result, their capability to innovate has been deteriorated due to increasing incentives to outsource especially IT development and services. The HealthCare.gov rollout disaster in the U.S. was a clear indication that the role of information management experts in government is oftentimes limited to contract management tasks, such as planning and oversight. One response from government organizations is to create internal innovation labs, organize hackathons, hire Chief Innovation Officers, or try to recruit industry expertise into government.

We observe first organizational, structural, managerial, procedural, and technological changes to address the changing internal and external environments of government organizations. As an example, the UK and US governments have adopted new organizational structures in form digital services teams that are able to respond faster to ad hoc needs of their internal government clients. They have adopted an agile government approach designing software in a more information- and user-centric way that is standard in the IT industry. Once software is developed, it is shared widely across all levels of government and no longer siloed in one department. In addition, governments need to adapt to changes in their internal and external environments and create systems that allow them to scan trends and identify developments, predict their potential impact on the organization, and quickly learn and implement responses (Gong & Janssen, 2012).

This special issue therefore invites papers that address open research questions that were posed in two recent Viewpoint pieces in Government Information Quarterly by Janssen & Van den Voort (2016) on adaptive governance and by Mergel (in press) on agile government. Adaptive governance should ensure that an organization is able to deal with the changes, while protecting it from becoming unstable. The main characteristics of adaptive governance are decentralized bottom-up decision-making, efforts to mobilize internal and external capabilities, wider participation to spot and internalize developments, and continuous adjustment to deal with uncertainty (Janssen & Van den Voort, 2016). An agile government introduces user-centric software development approaches implemented together with agency-based project managers to shorten the implementation cycle, improve the outcomes of IT projects, and make sure that user needs are considered (Mergel in press).

For this special issue, we welcome conceptual, empirical, qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research papers. Topics may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Conceptualization of agile government and adaptive governance, implication, benefits and theory building;
  • Specific or distinguishable agile software development approaches for governmental organization and/or digital public service;
  • Agile software development project management (e.g. Scrum method) in governmental contexts;
  • The impact of applying agile government or adaptive governance on the culture, organizational structure, business processes and individual behaviors;
  • The impact of agile government and adaptive governance on policy-making processes, including information acquisition, negotiation, policy formulation, evaluation and examination;
  • Information sharing and organizational learning in agile government and adaptive governance environments;
  • Adaptation at different levels, traceability and accountability in agile government and adaptive governance projects;
  • Principles and approaches to enable/increase adaptability;
  • Coordination/mediation mechanisms in adaptive governance;
  • Pros and cons of adaptability, barriers and drivers, challenges and opportunities, balance between adaptability, stability, and accountability;
  • In-depth and comparative case studies of agile government and adaptive governance in public sector; and
  • Whether, and how, agile development approaches lead to user-centric digital government services, processes, and applications.

Special Issue Guest Editors:

  • Ines Mergel, University of Konstanz, contact: ines.mergel@uni-konstanz.de
  • Yiwei Gong, School of Information Management at Wuhan University, contact: yiweigong@whu.edu.cn
  • John Bertot, iSchool at University of Maryland, contact: jbertot@umd.edu

Special Issue Format

Each submission is subject to a rigorous double-blind peer review process with at least two independent reviewers. Authors can contact the guest editors for additional information.

The deadline for manuscript submission: January 1, 2017 Extended Deadline until February 15, 2017

References:

Gong, Y., & Janssen, M. (2012). From policy implementation to business process management: Principles for creating flexibility and agility. Government Information Quarterly, 29(Supplement 1), 61-71.

Janssen, M., Van de Voort, H. (2016): Adaptive governance: Towards a stable, accountable and responsive government. Government Information Quarterly, 33(1), 1-5.

Mergel, I. (in press 2016): Agile innovation management in government: A research agenda. Government Information Quarterly, 33(3), 516-523.

Advertisements

New article published: Agile Innovation Management in Government: A Research Agenda

screen-shot-2016-09-13-at-8-00-37-amI wrote a paper based on my interviews with CTOs and digital service innovators in the U.S. federal government. The goal of the paper is to bring together the elements that lead to innovations in digital service delivery. I contrast traditional software development processes with elements of an agile innovation management approach. The result is a research framework and research questions for future explorations:

Abstract
Governments are facing an information technology upgrade and legacy problem: outdated systems and acquisition processes are resulting in high-risk technology projects that are either over budget or behind schedule. Recent catastrophic technology failures, such as the failed launch of the politically contested online marketplace Healthcare.gov in the U.S. were attributed to an over-reliance on external technology contractors and failures to manage large-scale technology contracts in government. As a response, agile software development and modular acquisition approaches, new independent organizational units equipped with fast reacting teams, in combination with a series of policy changes are developed to address the need to innovate digital service delivery in government. This article uses a process tracing approach, as well as initial qualitative interviews with a subset of executives and agency-level digital services members to provide an overview of the existing policies and implementation approaches toward an agile innovation management approach. The article then provides a research framework including research questions that provide guidance for future research on the managerial implementation considerations necessary to scale up the initial efforts and move toward a collaborative and agile innovation management approach in government.
Reference: Mergel, I. (2016): Agile Innovation Management in Government: A Research Agenda, in: Government Information Quarterly, 33(3), pp. 516-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2016.07.004.

Congressional hearing about @18 and @usds operations and @gao report

I just watched the Congressional hearing of the 18F and U.S. Digital Service Oversight committee. The hearing was initiated by a GAO report titled: “DIGITAL SERVICE PROGRAMS: Assessing Results and Coordinating with Chief Information Officers Can Improve Delivery of Federal Projects” published on June 10, 2016.

The report showed that most agencies were fully satisfied with the digital swat teams that helped them fix their IT problems:

Screen Shot 2016-06-10 at 11.16.15 AM

The GAO inspectors talked to four CIOs (DHS, DOD, VA, DOS). The first three were fully aware and happy with the services 18F and USDS provided to their agencies. The State Department’s CIO was not aware enough, but then paddled back and said in follow-up discussions that he had actually been satisfied and involved from the beginning. Nevertheless, GAO found that CIOs need to be fully involved and IT acquisition should not happen behind their back – based on a statement of one CIO who had forgotten about the initial meetings he was involved in.

18F and USDS were criticized by the private sector witnesses for their opaque operations, vague agreements, and that they introduce an agile delivery BPA process that not all vendors and contractors want to follow due to intellectual property right protection. The agile blanket acquisition agreement encourages future contractors to showcase their code and ability to use agile methodologies in order to comply with the draft open source policy and lightweight production cycles. Vendors who don’t want to participate won’t be able to be involved in selected future IT acquisitions. Clearly that raises red flags on all sides, but moves government IT acquisition toward a disruption of the clearly broken IT acquisition process.

Communication and transparency are huge factors in explaining how a young start-up inside of government functions, moves their operations along, and comes up with oversight and accountability procedures and structures. The 18F blog is a valuable resource for a general audience, but I do believe that there is an industry-inherent over-reliance on publishing code and text on the social coding side Github. IT professionals value this resource highly, will find code, reuse it, or help the federal government to improve the code, but I don’t think that the community can expect Members of Congress or GAO inspectors to learn and read Github updates. This is where the bureaucracy meets the digital swat teams and more communication is necessary.

I was dismayed to hear the low profile USDS and 18F were keeping in their testimonies. There is so much more data out there that was already published on non-traditional outlets, such as Medium or blogs, that clearly shows how many millions of dollars the digital teams have saved the agencies they worked with. Why not show the numbers? No one else can show them except for those teams that have actually worked on comparing vendor data with digital service team data. Do it!

Generally, I recognize the statements of the private sector witnesses as a sign that they fear the disruption that 18F and USDS have started. This is a good thing — but needs to be aligned with the expectations and regulations that are there to protect government and its citizens against rogue behavior. As the chair of the oversight committee said: “Y’all should be holding hands and work on this together, because you y’all have the same goal.”

 

[Will update this post as process some of the statements a bit more]

New IBM Report: A Manager’s Guide to Assessing the Impact of Government Social Media Interactions

IBM’s Center for the Business of Government has published a new report: “A Manager’s Guide to Assessing the Impact of Government Social Media Interactions“.IBM Center for the Business of Government: A Manager’s Guide to Assessing the Impact of Government Social Media Interactions

This new report addresses the key question of how government should measure the impact of its social media use.

Social media data – as part of the big data landscape – has important signaling function for government organizations. Public managers can quickly assess what citizens think about draft policies, understand the impact they will have on citizens or actively pull citizens ideas into the government innovation process. However, big data collection and analysis are for many government organizations still a barrier and it is important to understand how to make sense of the massive amount of data that is produced on social media every day.

This report guides public managers step-by-step through the process of slicing and dicing big data into small data sets that provide important mission-relevant insights to public managers.

First, I offer a survey of the social media measurement landscape showing what free tools are used and the type of insights they can quickly provide through constant monitoring and for reporting purposes. Then I review the White House’s digital services measurement framework which is part of the overall Digital Government Strategy. Next, I discuss the design steps for a social media strategy which will be basis for all social media efforts and should include the mission and goals which can then be operationalized and measured. Finally, I provide insights how the social media metrics can be aligned with the social media strategic goals and how these numbers and other qualitative insights can be reported to make a business case for the impact of social media interactions in government.

I interviewed social media managers in the federal government, observed their online discussions about social media metrics, and reviewed GSA’s best practices recommendations and practitioner videos to understand what the current measurement practices are. Based on these insights, I put together a comprehensive report that guides managers through the process of setting up a mission-driven social media strategy and policy as the basis for all future measurement activities, and provided insights on how they can build a business with insights derived from both quantitative and qualitative social media data.

 

Media coverage:

 

Open Government Platforms in the Executive Branch of the U.S. Federal Government

[updated on 04/15/2014]

I put together a list of open government platforms that I used in my Digital Government class this semester at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. The list is sorted by their contributions to the three dimensions of the 2009 Open Government and Transparency memo (transparency, participation, and collaboration). In addition, for each platform I thought about the main goals, the target audience (or engaged crowd), the process(es), and the potential outcomes.

I included HealthCare.gov even though it is an online marketplace and might not be considered as an Open Government initiative. However, I believe it increased transparency for both the (uninsured) public and journalists, as well as the providers in each state.

Addition: Alex Howard prompted me on Twitter to think about what kind of transparency the platform might provide. I include it in the class, because the platform served as a broker to help citizens understand their local marketplace and provide information about plans as well as providers. I believe it is a valuable and trusted government service and private marketplaces might not have the same level of trust. Take a look at Alex’s article on TechPresident where he discusses private healthcare markets.

I am posting it here as a summary for my class, but also to ask for feedback from anyone interested in this topic. Did I forget an important platform? Is the classification and my analysis of the dimensions reasonable? Should I add more dimensions to describe the platforms? Curious what you think, Internet!

Turkey’s political decision to blackout Twitter

Will the revolution be tweeted in Turkey even though the prime minister has decided to block the microblogging service Twitter? It sure looks like it. However, it seems to have backfired big time as this Twitter map of the hashtag #TwitterIsBlockedInTurkey shows:

An upside of this political decision is, that it has in my opinion increased the digital literacy among the Turkish people. They had to learn about proxies, VPNs, anonymous surfing, and other work-arounds to gain access to Twitter, read about what the world outside thinks about the developments and keep posting to Twitter. In a world where physical access is no longer a hurdle, digital literacy – know _how_ to access content and understand cultural differences of social networking sites has become an important issue. As one of my friends reports from Turkey,  this article on Mashable.com has become an important source to teach people how to reconnect or stay connected.

Even though the Turkish president (who mostly has representative functions) had to sign the law prime minister Erdogan put forward, he himself kept tweeting and posted a memorable update condemning the blockade of social media platforms (translation: “Closing of social media platforms can not be approved of.”

In the past, EMPA students from the Turkish prime minister’s office, other cabinet offices, and the presidential office attended my social media classes at the Maxwell School. Looking back at our class conversations I am still surprised – and I know I shouldn’t – how little political power the president has and how much his office focuses on representative aspects. My students from both offices were eager to learn how to use social media in professional ways to support their bosses, but it was also clear to me that the political elite represented in the classroom was disconnected from the technological and cultural developments surrounding social media. A fact that I also observe when I talk to high-level public managers from other countries or the U.S.

While this certainly does not justify the Twitter blackout, I do believe it is an important factor to understand why government officials may feel threatened by a free and open online conversation they can’t control. The result is that they are oftentimes surprised by what is now called leaks of their own behavior and learn about it when issues are starting to be covered in the press – bridging the boundary between online conversations and mainstream media attention.

eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government Special Issue: Social Media in Asia

homeHeaderTitleImage_en_US

The eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government has just published a special issue focusing on governance issues around social media, mobile applications and other new technologies in Asia.

Here is the blurb:

This special issue is aimed at showcasing innovative scholarly works examining various subjects concerning the role of social media, mobile phones, and other new technologies in the formation of democratic citizenship and good governance in Asia. We seek studies that address relevant topics in a particular Asian country, and also welcome comparative research on Asian countries or Asian and non-Asian countries.

The articles are available for open access on the journal’s website and listed below:

Table of Contents

Editorial

Transformation of Citizenship and Governance in Asia. The Challenges of Social and Mobile Media PDF
Nojin Kwak, Ines Mergel, Peter Parycek, Marco Skoric i-iii

Special Issue

Civic Action and Media Perceptions within the Wall: The (Re) Negotiation of Power in China PDF
Natalie Pang 1-15
A Trigger or a Muffler? – Examining the Dynamics of Crosscutting Exposure and Political Expression in Online Social Media PDF
Soo Young Bae 16-27
Protests against #delhigangrape on Twitter: Analyzing India’s Arab Spring PDF
Saifuddin Ahmed, Kokil Jaidka 28-58
Internet Aggregators Constructing the Political Right Wing in Japan PDF
Muneo Kaigo 59-79

Scientific Research Papers

The Impact of Public Transparency in Fighting Corruption PDF
James Batista Vieira 80-106

Public Administration Review article: A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government

Together with my co-author Professor Stuart Bretschneider I wrote an article that was just published for early view in the Public Administration Review (PAR). In this article, we develop a model of social adoption in the public sector. Here is the abstract:

Social media applications are slowly diffusing across all levels of government. The organizational dynamics underlying adoption and use decisions follow a process similar to that for previous waves of new information and communication technologies. The authors suggest that the organizational diffusion of these types of new information and communication technologies, initially aimed at individual use and available through markets, including social media applications, follows a three-stage process. First, agencies experiment informally with social media outside of accepted technology use policies. Next, order evolves from the first chaotic stage as government organizations recognize the need to draft norms and regulations. Finally, organizational institutions evolve that clearly outline appropriate behavior, types of interactions, and new modes of communication that subsequently are formalized in social media strategies and policies. For each of the stages, the authors provide examples and a set of propositions to guide future research.

Full reference:

Mergel, I. and Bretschneider, S. I. (2013), A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government. Public Administration Review. doi: 10.1111/puar.12021

Our paper won the Emerald Group’s Citations of Excellence winner 2016 award!

New book published: “Social Media in the Public Sector”

I am excited to announce the release of my first sole-authored book: “Social media in the public sector“. It will be officially introduced to the public at the annual NASPAA conference in Austin, TX, on October 18, 2012.

The book is based on my research that started about three years ago. My initial interest started with the success of  Obama’s Internet strategy to reach audiences via social media who are unlikely to interact with politicians or government in general. As the open government initiative developed in the U.S. federal government, I started to interview public managers to understand how they are (re)organizing their standard operating procedures to use social media for regular governing operations in support of the mission of their organizations. The book provides insights into the strategic, managerial, and administrative aspects of social media adoption in the public sector.

The publisher’s book page includes resources for professors who would like to use the book in their e-government classes, including week-by-week Powerpoint slides and an article published in the Journal of Public Affairs Education that outlines my teaching approach and learning experiences.

The book went through a thorough double-blind peer-review process and I would like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their invaluable feedback.

Next month an accompanying field guide will be released.

Here is a link to the instructor resources on Jossey-Bass/Wiley’s website.

Blurb:

In today’s networked world, the public sector is tapping into new media applications to increase government organizations’ participation, transparency and collaboration. The book contains a review of the current state of the public administration literature and shows how Government 2.0 activities can potentially challenge or change the existing paradigms. It includes an overview of each of the tools used to increase participation, transparency and collaboration. The book also highlights case examples at the local, state, federal and international levels. The author offers recommendations for the implementation processes at the end of each chapter and includes suggested readings and references.

Endorsements

Comprehensive and compelling, Social Media in the Public Sector makes the case that to achieve Government 2.0, agencies must first adopt Web 2.0 social technologies. Ines Mergel explains both how and why in this contemporary study of traditional institutions adopting and adapting to new technologies.
Beth Simone Noveck, United States Deputy Chief Technology Officer (2009-2011)

Ines Mergel moves beyond the hype with detailed, comprehensive research on social media technologies, use, management and policies in government. This book should be required reading for researchers and public managers alike.
Jane Fountain, Professor and Director, National Center for Digital Government, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Professor Mergel has produced a foundational work that combines the best kind of scholarship with shoe-leather reporting and anthropology that highlights the debates that government agencies are struggling to resolve and the fruits of their efforts as they embrace the social media revolution. Social Media in the Public Sector is a first and sets a high standard against which subsequent analysis will be measured.
Lee Rainie, Director, Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project

Dr. Mergel is an award-winning author who again wields her story skills in this book. She excels in explaining in concrete, practical terms how government managers can use social media to serve the public. Her book puts years of research into one handy guide. It’s practical. It’s readable. And it’s an essential read.
John M. Kamensky, Senior Fellow, IBM Center for The Business of Government

Government 2.0 class – students commenting on their own learning process

I am teaching PPA730 Government 2.0 for the fourth year with the challenge that the topic is truly a moving target. The course schedule organically evolves each semester – basically in parallel to the developments in the public sector. Four or five times throughout the semester guest speakers from government organizations join us to talk about their experiences either with specific tools or sharing their insights about their local implementation and then management processes. The first two guest speakers this semester were Rachel Flagg, GSA – HowTo.gov, and Bill Greeves, CIO Roanoake County and my co-author of the forthcoming “Social Media Fieldguide”.

One of my current students wrote up a fantastic blog post over on our class blog and I would like to share her insights and her own learning process here:

Social Media – INEVITABLE ? So jump right in and ride the wave!!?

Our objective in this class is to understand how social media can be successfully used, especially in government and non-profits. An important aspect for me in being able to do this is to find a way to believe that this can indeed be accomplished given my limited experience, skepticism and a weariness regarding information overload. For me, what I was looking for was an overriding value statement and/or mindset that would set me on the path with a positive outlook. The 2 guest speakers we have had in class have helped make this happen.  Rachel Flagg of GSA and her amazing websiteHowTo.Gov  provided much information about the specifics of how to implement social media applications in Government. In addition, she answered one of our questions about how you deal with all the details, the instability, the beta factor, barriers, constraints with the advice to “just jump in”. Don’t let the uncertainties hold you back – have faith that you will make it work and “go for it”.  I plan to take this advice.  I watched the way young people were using all these tools all the time and simultaneously. They were crowdsourcing their decisions, making deals and creating networks at a breathtaking seemingly effortless pace. I started seeing ‘join us onFacebook,  ‘join us on Twitter’  everywhere online and in print media. Bill Greeves , the IT Director of Roanoke County , Virginia commented on the inevitability of the use of social media to become a dominant force in our communications both inside and outside government. “Inevitable” is defined as “impossible to avoid or prevent” and that sums up how I was feeling. His obvious determination and careful planning to harness the coming surge and, in fact, become a pioneer in the embracing of this technology was inspiring. So, thanks to Rachel and Bill, my resolve has been strengthened and I will adopt a surfing metaphor – “ride the wave” and if you “wipe-out”, get back on and wait for the next one.