New article: Agile government: Systematic literature review and future research

Bildschirmfoto 2018-05-11 um 07.04.42Together with Yiwei Gong and John Bertot, I edited a special issue for Government Information Quarterly on agile government. For our introduction, we conducted a systematic literature review of articles published on the subject during the last decades and provided guidance for future research.

Abstract

Governments need to adapt to changes in their internal and external environments and create systems that allow them to scan trends, identify developments, predict their potential impact on the organization, and quickly learn how to implement changes to their standard operating procedures. As a response, government organizations are adopting agile approaches as part of their process redesigns, project management, and software development approaches. Although agility and adaptiveness are long in use in the private sector, they have been increasingly adopted in the public sector literature and practices. In order to understand the existing theoretical and practical foundations of the field, we have conducted a systematic literature review and identified four streams of research areas:

(1) software development approaches,

(2) project management approaches,

(3) application areas, and

(4) potential outcomes.

In this article, we synthesize this literature, provide an outlook on future research questions, and introduce several articles as part of the current special issue focused on agile government.

We included four articles in the special issue that focus on different themes of agile governments:

  1. Hong and Lee’s (2018) article provides evidence of how regulation and decentralization impacts adaptive governance. The authors argue that decentralization of governance can hinder the process of adaptation in the sharing economy, especially if the considered policy embodies entrepreneurial politics.
  2. Wang, Medaglia, and Zheng’s (2018) article investigates adaptive governance in the context of digital government where new forms of collaborative governance are needed to rapidly adapt to changes in the internal and external environments.
  3. Soe and Drechsler (2018) discuss how local governments collaborate for joint service provision, be more adaptive toward new technological and organizational changes, and introduce innovative services following industry trends such as predictive analytics, autonomous vehicles, and artificial intelligence.
  4. Chatfield and Reddick (2018) show how a U.S. city government’s use of big data analytics enhances customer agility in 311 on-demand services.

Reference: Mergel, I., Gong, Y., Bertot, J. (2018): Agile government: Systematic literature review and future research, in: Government Information Quarterly, 35(2):xxx-xxx.

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CfP Special Issue Agile Government and Adaptive Governance in GIQ

Special Issue on Agile Government and Adaptive Governance in the Public Sector

Governments around the world have to respond faster to citizen needs, like the expectation of 24/7 availability and personalized access to government services generated by the so-called ‘Facebook generation’. Seamless user-centric experiences on social networking suites, such as Weibo or Twitter, as well as online marketplaces such as Amazon, increase the demand for similar experiences with government services. In addition, industry trends, such as Big Data, predictive analytics methods, and Smart City approaches drive the need to create internal capacity and skill sets to evaluate, respond to, and implement new technologies and internal processes.

The previous new public management era has left many government organizations with a reduced skill set and limited capacity to upgrade their IT infrastructure. As a result, their capability to innovate has been deteriorated due to increasing incentives to outsource especially IT development and services. The HealthCare.gov rollout disaster in the U.S. was a clear indication that the role of information management experts in government is oftentimes limited to contract management tasks, such as planning and oversight. One response from government organizations is to create internal innovation labs, organize hackathons, hire Chief Innovation Officers, or try to recruit industry expertise into government.

We observe first organizational, structural, managerial, procedural, and technological changes to address the changing internal and external environments of government organizations. As an example, the UK and US governments have adopted new organizational structures in form digital services teams that are able to respond faster to ad hoc needs of their internal government clients. They have adopted an agile government approach designing software in a more information- and user-centric way that is standard in the IT industry. Once software is developed, it is shared widely across all levels of government and no longer siloed in one department. In addition, governments need to adapt to changes in their internal and external environments and create systems that allow them to scan trends and identify developments, predict their potential impact on the organization, and quickly learn and implement responses (Gong & Janssen, 2012).

This special issue therefore invites papers that address open research questions that were posed in two recent Viewpoint pieces in Government Information Quarterly by Janssen & Van den Voort (2016) on adaptive governance and by Mergel (in press) on agile government. Adaptive governance should ensure that an organization is able to deal with the changes, while protecting it from becoming unstable. The main characteristics of adaptive governance are decentralized bottom-up decision-making, efforts to mobilize internal and external capabilities, wider participation to spot and internalize developments, and continuous adjustment to deal with uncertainty (Janssen & Van den Voort, 2016). An agile government introduces user-centric software development approaches implemented together with agency-based project managers to shorten the implementation cycle, improve the outcomes of IT projects, and make sure that user needs are considered (Mergel in press).

For this special issue, we welcome conceptual, empirical, qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research papers. Topics may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Conceptualization of agile government and adaptive governance, implication, benefits and theory building;
  • Specific or distinguishable agile software development approaches for governmental organization and/or digital public service;
  • Agile software development project management (e.g. Scrum method) in governmental contexts;
  • The impact of applying agile government or adaptive governance on the culture, organizational structure, business processes and individual behaviors;
  • The impact of agile government and adaptive governance on policy-making processes, including information acquisition, negotiation, policy formulation, evaluation and examination;
  • Information sharing and organizational learning in agile government and adaptive governance environments;
  • Adaptation at different levels, traceability and accountability in agile government and adaptive governance projects;
  • Principles and approaches to enable/increase adaptability;
  • Coordination/mediation mechanisms in adaptive governance;
  • Pros and cons of adaptability, barriers and drivers, challenges and opportunities, balance between adaptability, stability, and accountability;
  • In-depth and comparative case studies of agile government and adaptive governance in public sector; and
  • Whether, and how, agile development approaches lead to user-centric digital government services, processes, and applications.

Special Issue Guest Editors:

  • Ines Mergel, University of Konstanz, contact: ines.mergel@uni-konstanz.de
  • Yiwei Gong, School of Information Management at Wuhan University, contact: yiweigong@whu.edu.cn
  • John Bertot, iSchool at University of Maryland, contact: jbertot@umd.edu

Special Issue Format

Each submission is subject to a rigorous double-blind peer review process with at least two independent reviewers. Authors can contact the guest editors for additional information.

The deadline for manuscript submission: January 1, 2017 Extended Deadline until February 15, 2017

References:

Gong, Y., & Janssen, M. (2012). From policy implementation to business process management: Principles for creating flexibility and agility. Government Information Quarterly, 29(Supplement 1), 61-71.

Janssen, M., Van de Voort, H. (2016): Adaptive governance: Towards a stable, accountable and responsive government. Government Information Quarterly, 33(1), 1-5.

Mergel, I. (in press 2016): Agile innovation management in government: A research agenda. Government Information Quarterly, 33(3), 516-523.